Emgality® (Galcanezumab)

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Galcanezumab: Response Following Continued Treatment in Patients With Migraine Who Were Initial Nonresponders

Galcanezumab-treated patients without response after 1 or 2 months of treatment appear to have a reasonable chance of continued improvement in months following initial treatment; this is more likely in those showing greater early improvements.

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Description of Analysis

Galcanezumab has been studied in phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in adult patients for the prevention of

  • episodic migraine (EVOLVE-1 and EVOLVE-2)1,2
  • chronic migraine (REGAIN),3 and
  • episodic or chronic migraine that has not benefited from 2 to 4 previous migraine prevention medication categories (CONQUER).4

The galcanezumab doses used and duration of the migraine prevention studies are summarized in Summary of Study Design in the Migraine Prevention Studies.

Summary of Study Design in the Migraine Prevention Studies

 

GMB Doses Studied

Treatment Duration

EVOLVE studies1,2

120 mg monthlya
or
240 mg monthly

6 months double-blind

REGAIN3

120 mg monthlya
or
240 mg monthly

3 months double-blind,
with optional 9-month open-label extension

CONQUER4

120 mg monthlya

3 months double-blind,
with optional 3-month open-label extension

Abbreviation: GMB = galcanezumab.

aThe initial dose was administered as a 240-mg loading dose, followed by subsequent monthly doses of 120 mg.

Post hoc analyses were conducted to evaluate response with continued galcanezumab treatment in patients who did not meet response definitions after the first 1 or 2 months in the

  • EVOLVE-1, EVOLVE-2, and REGAIN studies,5 and
  • CONQUER study.6

The results are summarized separately in the sections that follow.

The decision to discontinue treatment with galcanezumab in a patient who is not responding well must be based on the clinical judgment of the prescribing healthcare practitioner. As discussed below, factors contributing to galcanezumab treatment response or nonresponse are yet to be elucidated. Reduction in migraine headache days is only one measure of response and there may be other benefits to treatment, determined between the patient and clinician, that justify continued treatment despite not reaching a threshold reduction in migraine headache days.5

Analysis of Initial Nonresponders to Galcanezumab in the EVOLVE-1, EVOLVE-2, and REGAIN Studies

A post hoc analysis examined response after continued galcanezumab treatment in patients who did not achieve "good" early improvement after 1 or 2 months of randomized, double-blind treatment in the EVOLVE-1, EVOLVE-2, and REGAIN studies.5

Good early improvement was defined as reduction from baseline in migraine headache days of

  • ≥50% in the episodic migraine studies (EVOLVE-1 and EVOLVE-2), and
  • ≥30% in the chronic migraine study (REGAIN).5

A ≥30% reduction from baseline in migraine headache days for chronic migraine can be clinically meaningful and was adopted for this analysis.5

This analysis included

  • 879 galcanezumab-treated patients from the EVOLVE-1 and EVOLVE-2 studies (pooled 120-mg and 240-mg doses), and
  • 555 galcanezumab-treated patients from the REGAIN study (pooled 120-mg and 240-mg doses).5

Additional information about the design of this post hoc analysis is available in the publication.5

Early Response Categories

Responses of patients who did not achieve "good" early improvement were subcategorized based on the response a patient indicated within the first or second month of treatment (Early Improvement Categories in Patients Who Did Not Achieve Good Early Improvement).5

Early Improvement Categories in Patients Who Did Not Achieve Good Early Improvement5

Category

Episodic Migraine

Chronic Migraine

Modest early improvement

>30% to <50% fewer migraine headache days

>10% to <30% fewer migraine headache days

Limited early improvement

>10% to ≤30% fewer migraine headache days

N/A

Minimal or no early improvement

≤10% fewer to ≤10% more migraine headache days

≤10% fewer to ≤10% more migraine headache days

Worsening

>10% more migraine headache days

>10% more migraine headache days

Abbreviations: N/A = not applicable.

Outcomes With Continued Treatment in Patients Who Did Not Achieve Good Response After Months 1 or 2

Outcome definitions after continued treatment with galcanezumab through the double-blind treatment period are included below (Continued Treatment Outcome Definitions).5

Continued Treatment Outcome Definitions5

Category

Episodic Migraine

Chronic Migraine

Better response

≥75% fewer migraine headache days

≥50% fewer migraine headache days

Good response

≥50% fewer migraine headache days

≥30% fewer migraine headache days

Little-to-no response

≤10% fewer migraine headache days

≤10% fewer migraine headache days

Results

In the episodic migraine studies, 48.7% and 67.0% of patients met protocol-defined response at months 1 and 2, respectively. In the chronic migraine study, 44.9% and 56.8% of patients met protocol-defined response at months 1 and 2, respectively. This analysis included only patients who did not meet protocol-defined response at month 1, and month 1 or month 2. The percentages of patients with episodic or chronic migraine by improvement after 1 and 2 months of galcanezumab treatment are provided in Percentage of Patients With Episodic or Chronic Migraine by Improvement After Month 1 and Month 2 of Galcanezumab Treatment.5 

Percentage of Patients With Episodic or Chronic Migraine by Improvement After Month 1 and Month 2 of Galcanezumab Treatment5

Early Improvement Category

EVOLVE-1 and EVOLVE-2
N=878a

REGAIN
N=555

NR-1

Protocol-defined responseb

48.7%

44.9%

Modest improvement

17.7%

20.9%

Limited improvement

12.3%

NA

Minimal/no improvement

9.7%

24.0%

Worsening

11.6%

10.3%

NR-2

Protocol-defined responseb

67.0%

56.8%

Modest improvement

5.7%

12.8%

Limited improvement

11.2%

NA

Minimal/no improvement

7.6%

21.8%

Worsening

8.5%

8.6%

Abbreviations: NA = not applicable; NR-1 = patients without response after month 1 of galcanezumab treatment; NR-2 = patients without response after month 1 or month 2 of galcanezumab treatment.

aOne patient in the episodic group was excluded because of missing month 1 monthly headache day values.

bDefined as reduction from baseline in monthly migraine headache day of ≥50% for episodic migraine studies, or ≥30% in the chronic migraine study. These patients were not subject to further post hoc analysis.

In the episodic migraine studies, of the patients reporting "modest" early improvement after month 1 of galcanezumab treatment (ie, did not have a protocol-defined response),

A percentage of patients with “limited” (43%) or “minimal/no” (34%) early improvement, or “worsening” (20%) achieved a “good” response after continued treatment.5

In the chronic migraine study, of the patients reporting "modest" early improvement after month 1 of galcanezumab treatment (ie, did not have a protocol-defined response),

A good response was achieved after continued treatment for a percentage of patients with "minimal/no" early improvement (17%), or "worsening" early response (11%).

Similar patterns were observed for the patients without response after month 1 or month 2 of galcanezumab treatment in episodic migraine (Response Outcomes in Initial Nonresponders: Galcanezumab-Treated Patients With Episodic Migraine) and chronic migraine (Response Outcomes in Initial Nonresponders: Galcanezumab-Treated Patients with Chronic Migraine); however, the percentages were lower than in the patients without a response at month 1.5

Response Outcomes in Initial Nonrespondersa: Galcanezumab-Treated Patients With Episodic Migraine5

Response Outcome Categoriesb

Modest
(>30% to <50% Fewer Migraine Headache Days)

Limited
(>10% to ≤30% Fewer Migraine Headache Days)

Minimal/No
(≤10% Fewer to ≤10% More Migraine Headache Days)

Worsening
(>10% More Migraine Headache Days)

Subsequent response in NR-1c

Betterd

31/155 (20)

13/108 (12)

11/85 (13)

8/102 (8)

Goode

96/155 (62)

46/108 (43)

29/85 (34)

20/102 (20)

Little-to-nof

10/155 (7)

17/108 (16)

17/85 (20)

48/102 (47)

Subsequent response in NR-2c

Betterd

6/50 (12)

14/98 (14)

3/67 (5)

1/75 (1)

Goode

25/50 (50)

40/98 (41)

12/67 (18)

7/75 (9)

Little-to-nof

2/50 (4)

14/98 (14)

20/67 (30)

49/75 (65)

Abbreviations: NR-1 = patients without response after month 1 of galcanezumab treatment; NR-2 = patients without response after month 1 or month 2 of galcanezumab treatment.

aAn initial nonresponder is defined as a patient who does not achieve ≥50% reduction from baseline in migraine headache days.

bData shown as number of patients achieving subsequent response/number of patients in initial response category (%).

cResponse outcome across the remaining months 2 through 6 with continued galcanezumab treatment; data pooled across galcanezumab 120-mg and 240-mg doses.

dDefined as ≥75% fewer migraine headache days following initial nonresponse.

eDefined as ≥50% fewer migraine headache days following initial nonresponse.

fDefined as ≤10% fewer migraine headache days following initial nonresponse.

 

Response Outcomes in Initial Nonrespondersa: Galcanezumab-Treated Patients with Chronic Migraine5

Response Outcomes Categoriesb

Modest
(>10% to <30% Fewer Migraine Headache Days)

Minimal/No
(≤10% Fewer to ≤10% More Migraine Headache Days)

Worsening
(>10% More Migraine Headache Days)

Subsequent response in NR-1c

Betterd

15/116 (13)

6/133 (5)

2/57 (4)

Goode

44/116 (38)

23/133 (17)

6/57 (11)

Little-to-nof

35/116 (30)

71/133 (53)

42/57 (74)

Subsequent response in NR-2c

Betterd

12/71 (17)

7/121 (6)

1/48 (2)

Goode

25/71 (35)

16/121 (13)

5/48 (10)

Little-to-nof

20/71 (28)

74/121 (61)

41/48 (85)

Abbreviations: NR-1 = patients without response after month 1 of galcanezumab treatment; NR-2 = patients without response after month 1 or month 2 of galcanezumab treatment.

aAn initial nonresponder is defined as a patient who does not achieve ≥30% reduction from baseline in migraine headache days.

bData shown as number of patients achieving subsequent response/number of patients in initial response category (%).

cResponse outcome across the remaining months 2 through 3 with continued galcanezumab treatment; data pooled across galcanezumab 120-mg and 240-mg doses.

dDefined as ≥50% fewer migraine headache days following initial nonresponse.

eDefined as ≥30% fewer migraine headache days following initial nonresponse.

fDefined as ≤10% fewer migraine headache days following initial nonresponse.

It was concluded that galcanezumab-treated patients with episodic or chronic migraine who did not respond following 1 or 2 months of treatment

  • have a reasonable likelihood of experiencing improvement with continued improvement in the months following initial treatment, and
  • were more likely to achieve improved responses with continued treatment if they experienced greater early improvement.5

Only a small percentage of patients with episodic or chronic migraine who experienced worsening migraine headache days following initial treatment responded with continued dosing; most patients did not show substantial response with continued treatment.5

More information on the analysis and results are included in the open-access article.5

Analysis of Initial Nonresponders to Galcanezumab in the CONQUER Study

A similar post hoc analysis was conducted to evaluate response after continued galcanezumab treatment in patients who did not achieve the response threshold after 1 or 2 months of randomized, double-blind treatment in the CONQUER study.6

This study enrolled

  • 137 patients with episodic migraine, and
  • 95 patients with chronic migraine.4,6

In this analysis, response was defined as reduction from baseline in monthly migraine headache days of

  • ≥50% for episodic migraine, and
  • ≥30% for chronic migraine.6

In the episodic migraine subgroup, 44% and 55% of patients met protocol-defined response at months 1 and 2, respectively.6 In the chronic migraine subgroup, 54% and 65% of patients met protocol-defined response at months 1 and 2, respectively.

Nonresponse was further categorized by reduction in migraine headache days at month 1, or months 1 and 2.6 The likelihood of subsequent response in these initial nonresponders is summarized for the episodic migraine subgroup (CONQUER Study: Likelihood of Subsequent Response in Episodic Migraine Subgroup) and chronic migraine subgroup (CONQUER Study: Likelihood of Subsequent Response in Chronic Migraine Subgroup).

CONQUER Study: Likelihood of Subsequent Response in Episodic Migraine Subgroup6

Response Outcome Categories

≥30% to <50% Fewer Migraine Headache Days

≥10% to <30% Fewer Migraine Headache Days

<10% Fewer to ≤10% More Migraine Headache Days

>10% More Migraine Headache Days

Nonresponse in month 1

Patientsa

23/137 (17)

19/137(14)

19/137 (14)

16/137 (12)

Patients with subsequent responseb over months 2 and 3c

6/23 (26)

2/19 (11)

2/19 (11)

2/16 (13)

Nonresponse in months 1 and 2

Patientsa

9/137 (7)

23/137 (17)

18/137 (13)

11/137 (8)

Patients with subsequent responseb in month 3c

3/9 (33)

5/23 (22)

4/18 (22)

0/11 (0)

aRepresented as number of patients in the initial nonresponse category/number of patients with episodic migraine treated with galcanezumab (%).

bResponse is defined as ≥50% reduction in monthly migraine headache days following initial nonresponse.

cRepresented as number of patients achieving subsequent response/number of patients in initial response category (%).

CONQUER Study: Likelihood of Subsequent Response in Chronic Migraine Subgroup6

Response Outcome Categories

≥10% to <30% Fewer Migraine Headache Days

<10% Fewer to ≤10% More Migraine Headache Days

>10% More Migraine Headache Days

Nonresponse in month 1

Patientsa

17/95 (18)

14/95 (15)

13/95 (14)

Patients with subsequent responseb over months 2 and 3c

9/17 (53)

4/14 (29)

0/13 (0)

Nonresponse in months 1 and 2

Patientsa

7/95 (7)

16/95 (17)

10/95 (11)

Patients with subsequent responseb in month 3c

2/7 (29)

1/16 (6)

0/10 (0)

aRepresented as number of patients the initial nonresponse category/number of patients with chronic migraine treated with galcanezumab (%).

bDefined as ≥30% reduction in monthly migraine headache days following initial nonresponse.

cRepresented as number of patients achieving subsequent response/number of patients in initial response category (%).

In this analysis from the CONQUER study,

  • 16% of patients in the episodic migraine subgroup with initial nonresponse at month 1 achieved response over months 2 and 3
  • 20% of patients in the episodic migraine subgroup with initial nonresponse at months 1 and 2 achieved response at month 3
  • 30% of patients in the chronic migraine subgroup with initial nonresponse at month 1 achieved response over months 2 and 3, and
  • 9% of patients in the chronic migraine subgroup with initial nonresponse at months 1 and 2 achieved response at month 3.6

Patients with greater initial reduction from baseline in migraine headache days were more likely to experience a response with continued treatment.6

References

1Stauffer VL, Dodick DW, Zhang Q, et al. Evaluation of galcanezumab for the prevention of episodic migraine: the EVOLVE-1 randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurol. 2018;75(9):1080-1088. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.1212

2Skljarevski V, Matharu M, Millen BA, et al. Efficacy and safety of galcanezumab for the prevention of episodic migraine: results of the EVOLVE-2 phase 3 randomized controlled clinical trial. Cephalalgia. 2018;38(8):1442-1454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102418779543

3Detke HC, Goadsby PJ, Wang S, et al. Galcanezumab in chronic migraine: the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled REGAIN study. Neurology. 2018;91(24):e2211-e2221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006640

4Mulleners WM, Kim BK, Láinez MJA, et al. Safety and efficacy of galcanezumab in patients for whom previous migraine preventive medication from two to four categories had failed (CONQUER): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3b trial. Lancet Neurol. 2020;19(10):814-825. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(20)30279-9

5Nichols R, Doty E, Sacco S, et al. Analysis of initial nonresponders to galcanezumab in patients with episodic or chronic migraine: results from the EVOLVE-1, EVOLVE-2, and REGAIN randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Headache. 2019;59(2):192-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/head.13443

6Nichols RM, Ahmed Z, McVige J, et al. Analysis of initial non-response to galcanezumab in patients with treatment-resistant migraine: results from the CONQUER trial. Headache. 2020;60(S1):99. 62nd Annual Scientific Meeting American Headache Society abstract. https://doi.org/10.1111/head.13854

Fecha de la última revisión: 2020 M10 16


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