Baqsimi™ (glucagon) nasal powder


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Hypoglycemia Consequences

There are multiple acute- and long-term consequences associated with severe hypoglycemia.

Acute Consequences of Severe Hypoglycemia

There are multiple acute consequences that are of concern with severe hypoglycemia.

Acute changes in body functions can result, including

  • cognitive impairment

  • mood changes

  • hypothermia

  • neuroglycopenia

  • autonomic changes, and

  • general malaise.1

Activities that can be affected or impaired include

  • work performance

  • driving performance, and

  • social functions.1

Increased mortality and acute morbidity can also occur, as well as increased risk of

  • accidents and falls

  • injuries

  • comas and seizures

  • cardiovascular events, and

  • cerebrovascular events.1,2

Long-term Consequences of Severe Hypoglycemia

There are multiple long-term consequences that are of concern with severe hypoglycemia.

Personal repercussions of severe hypoglycemia include

  • hypoglycemia fear

  • decreased quality of life, and

  • weight gain due to defensive eating to avoid hypoglycemia.1,3

Repeated hypoglycemia events cause an impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. These repeated hypoglycemia events results in a reduction in the glucose level that triggers the counterregulatory response during subsequent hypoglycemia events.1,2

Many social and personal activities can be affected, including

  • social, educational, and sporting activities

  • personal relationships, and

  • employment and driving restrictions.1

Possible worsening of diabetic and vascular complications may occur, as well as increased cardiovascular complications, including

  • MI

  • myocardial ischemia, and

  • cardiac arrythmia.1

Increased neurological complications may occur, including

  • cognitive function and impairment of development

  • coma

  • seizures

  • stroke or TIA

  • cognitive decline and possible onset or worsening of dementia, and 

  • brain damage.1

Increased all-cause mortality is also a long-term consequence of severe hypoglycemia.4-6


The published references below are available by contacting 1-800-LillyRx (1-800-545-5979).

1. Frier BM. Hypoglycaemia in diabetes mellitus: epidemiology and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014;10(12):711-722.

2. Seaquist ER, Anderson J, Childs B, et al. Hypoglycemia and diabetes: a report of a workgroup of the American Diabetes Association and the Endocrine Society. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(5):1384-1395.

3. Jodar-Gimeno E, Alvarez-Guisasola F, Avila-Lachica L, et al. Quality of life and fear for hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Rev Clin Esp. 2015;2:91-97.

4. Bonds DE, Miller ME, Bergenstal RM, et al. The association between symptomatic, severe hypoglycaemia and mortality in type 2 diabetes: retrospective epidemiological analysis of the ACCORD study. BMJ. 2010;340:b4909.

5. Pieber TR, Marso SP, McGuire DK, et al. DEVOTE 3: temporal relationships between severe hypoglycaemia, cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. Diabetologica. 2018;61:58-65.

6. Cryer PE. Severe hypogycemia predicts mortality in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1814-1816.


MI = myocardial infarction

TIA = transient ischemic attack

Date of Last Review: August 03, 2018

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